International Agreement Refugees

An individual may file a complaint with the UN Human Rights Committee under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights or to the UNITED Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, but no one has ever done so with respect to violations of the Convention. Nations can impose international sanctions on offenders, but no nation has ever done so. The report of the ad hoc committee and the opinions received were reviewed by the Economic and Social Committee from 31 July to 3 August and from 5 to 10 August 1950 and by the Council on 2 and 11 August 1950 (E/SR.399 and A/SR.406-407). The Committee debated at length the definition of “refugee” in the draft convention and reviewed and amended the draft preamble. The amended draft definition and preamble were adopted by the Economic and Social Council on August 11, 1950. On the same day, the Council adopted Resolution 319 B (XI), in which it took note of the Special Committee`s report, draft agreements presented there and comments received from governments. He called on the Secretary-General to reconvene the Special Committee to develop revised draft acts, taking into account the observations of governments and specialized institutions, as well as the deliberations and decisions of the Economic and Social Council at its eleventh session, including the Council-approved definition of refugee. The Convention is now sometimes presented as a relic of the Cold War and as insufficient in the face of “new” refugees in the face of ethnic violence and gender-based persecution. It is also seen as insensitive to security problems, in particular terrorism and organised crime, and even superfluous, since protection, which is now in principle the responsibility of all under international human rights law, is in principle the responsibility of all. Refugees have rights and protection under international law. These rights and protection are included in the Refugee Convention and major international human rights treaties. On 14 December 1950, in view of the third Committee`s report, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 429 (V) by which it decided to convene a plenipotentiary conference in Geneva to carry out the development of the Convention on the Status of Refugees and the Protocol on the Status of Stateless Persons. The Assembly also recommended that the governments participating in the Conference take into account the draft convention presented by the Economic and Social Council and, in particular, the wording of the definition of “refugees” as contained in an appendix to Resolution 429 (V), which had been amended by the Assembly prior to the adoption of the resolution (A/PV.325).

The United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons met from 2 to 25 July 1951 and adopted the Convention on the Status of Refugees on 25 July 1951 (A/CONF.2/108/Rev.1). The Convention came into force on 22 April 1954, in accordance with Article 43, after the sixth instrument of ratification was tabled. The Convention does not address the issue of reception and does not require any sanctuary state to grant asylum as such or provides for the distribution of responsibilities (. B, for example, the statute of limitations that should deal with the right to refugee status).